德绍·包豪斯Bauhaus Dessau:清晰的阴影、清晰的线条和令人惊讶的丰富色彩。

琳达·格兰特的小说《当我生活在现代》(2000年)以1940年代末的特拉维夫为背景,描述了残酷的沙漠气候对城市包豪斯建筑的影响。特拉维夫是一座由德绍进口的混凝土大都市,一个寒冷、灰色、雪白的德国地方。转移到地中海,这个地方无情地“通过它的薄白墙吸收热量”。包豪斯建筑未能提供遮荫或气流,酷热变得如此残酷,几乎成了支撑。
包豪斯-卢西亚-莫霍利.jpg Bauhaus Dessau: Crisp Shadows, Clear Lines and a Surprising Abundance of Colour - Bauhaus Dessau:清晰的阴影、清晰的线条和令人惊讶的丰富色彩。卢西亚-莫霍利,包豪斯大厦,德绍,1935-36。礼仪:卢西亚·莫霍利庄园和DACS.沃尔特·格罗皮乌斯
在德绍的包豪斯大厦于1926年开业,1932年关闭。在1943,它的内部在空中轰炸中被摧毁。1996年,它被联合国教科文组织授予世界遗产地位,十年后,它被精心修复并重新开放,与遗留下来的大师院、卡尔·菲格设计的易北Kornhaus餐厅以及全市其他与包豪斯有关的建筑一起。
德索并不总是“冷、灰、雪”。今夏的一个清晨,在包豪斯校园的学生区醒来,这间安静、整洁的卧室从玻璃窗前迅速升温。阳光照射着宿舍楼的平坦立面,从弯曲的金属框架窗户和家具上投射出横跨光滑水泥地面的角形阴影。这里也没有阴影,也没有微风。——玻璃、钢铁、混凝土、清晰阴影和清晰线条的视觉戏剧:无论是通过拉兹洛·莫霍利-纳吉在阴影和阴影中的摄影研究,还是通过路德维希·米斯·凡德·罗闪烁的塔楼,这种结合立即显露无遗。包豪斯的现代主义。
透过镜头,我们看到包豪斯是一个黑白分明的世界,与米斯著名的“少即是多”格言结合在一起,暗示了一种冷静克制的整体氛围。
003-anni-albers-.-hanging-1926-x65523.jpgACK白色黄色,1926/65,棉花和丝绸,2×1.2米礼貌:2018,约瑟夫和安尼阿尔伯斯基金会,艺术家权利协会(ARS),纽约,DACS,伦敦和大都会艺术博物馆,纽约,
但包豪斯内部是一个糖果盒:在恢复建筑到它原来的颜色,使用了几十种不同色调的油漆,从强烈的粉红色,橙色和蓝色到微妙的淡白色和灰色。鲍哈豪斯进入了超光滑的表面:甚至金属。通往礼堂的通道——曾经是奥斯卡·施莱默舞蹈团的所在地——是通过高度涂漆的象牙门,在浅粉色墙壁上的暗凹处设置。在这个空间里,从沙子到靛蓝,使用了七种不同的颜色和纹理。在礼堂里,银色的散热器高高地安装在木炭墙上,透过木炭墙可以看到外面的餐厅,天花板是橙色的。这种颜色不是表面的:它正好与建筑的视线相配合,改变了空间的阅读方式。它的使用是微妙的,冒险的,并一直通向心脏。在格罗皮厄斯自己的研究中,天花板的一个平面是樱草花:他的展示舱的海棠橙子的一面。F51椅子——他自己设计的,在他自己的办公室里——是用纹理编织的织物装饰的,颜色微妙地呈黄色。
169_anni-albers-.-for-.-hanging-1925-x64721.jpg他在纸上,34×27厘米。礼貌:2018,约瑟夫和安尼阿尔伯斯基金会,艺术家权利协会(ARS),纽约,DACS,伦敦和现代艺术博物馆,纽约
WPAP60300 3Br在大师的房子-由格罗皮厄斯设计,由Moholy Nagy和施莱默,以及Josef和Anni Alber占领。莱昂内尔·费宁格,瓦西里·康定斯基,保罗·克莱和乔治·穆奇——颜色贯穿始终,甚至作为白色外表上的口音。施莱默梯田的下层被涂成鲜艳的黄色:穆彻的橙色。几乎看不见,他们有效地在白色面罩上披上反射的色彩。今年早些时候在杜塞尔多夫K20展出的Anni Albers作品的回顾,下周在泰特现代美术馆开幕,同样充满了启示:特别是对于那些熟悉她影响深远的书《织布》(1965)中的单色图像的人来说。上世纪50年代纽约洛克菲勒宾馆的照片正是时髦现代主义的写照:玻璃门面,抛光的混凝土地板,光秃秃的砖墙,还有阿尔贝托·贾科梅蒂的雕塑。然而,在照片旁边,是为玻璃墙制造的纺织品阿尔伯斯的样品。用铜线和雪尼尔织成的……房间在夜晚会是什么样子,窗帘在人造光中闪闪发光,把温暖的铜色颤抖送入冰冷的香槟轿车和卡地亚的深处?
车身11994-10-95.jpg Bauhaus Dessau: Crisp Shadows, Clear Lines and a Surprising Abundance of Colour - Bauhaus Dessau:清晰的阴影、清晰的线条和令人惊讶的丰富色彩。
Anni Albers,寺庙Emanu-El方舟面板研究,1957,卡片上的箔和金属线,43x 37 cm。礼貌:第2018节约瑟夫和安妮阿尔伯斯基金会,艺术家权利协会(ARS),纽约和DACS,伦敦;照片:提姆NigsWald/IGIGIN 4ART
阿尔伯斯的设计方舟在寺庙埃曼努埃尔在达拉斯仍然原地,但一项研究包括在节目中,整体。设计建议通过彩色金属箔拼贴,并用金、蓝、银、绿金属线编织小样本。她20世纪20年代在包豪斯织造的织物与用来粉刷建筑物内外的颜色有着许多强烈的色调。或许我们可以更恰当地说,这些建筑与阿尔伯斯的挂毯有着共同的色彩。在格罗皮乌斯包豪斯的前一年,一些与色彩亲和度最接近的设计开始了。在菲格的Kornhaus结束了这一天,微弱的光线穿过弯曲的餐厅的玻璃墙穿过易北河,在墙上形成一个影子。夜幕降临时,红色短臂上的球形灯向身后的墙壁投射玫瑰色的光。玻璃在金属窗框中闪闪发光。这幢建筑物沐浴在傍晚的阳光下,不是白色而是金黄色。
礼貌:2018约瑟夫和安尼阿尔伯斯基金会,艺术家权利协会(ARS),纽约,DACS,伦敦和现代艺术博物馆,纽约HETTY犹大HETTY犹大是一个作家在伦敦。包豪斯·安妮·阿尔伯斯·赫蒂·犹大·泰特现代画家沃尔特·格罗皮乌斯·拉什·莫圣·纳吉

FRIZE特稿 ARThing编译

 

Set in Tel Aviv in the late 1940s, Linda Grant’s novel When I Lived in Modern Times (2000) describes the effect of brutal desert climate on the city’s Bauhaus architecture. Tel Aviv was a concrete metropolis constructed on an idea ‘imported from Dessau, a cold, grey, snowy German place’. Transferred to the Mediterranean, the place relentlessly ‘sucked the heat through its thin white walls’. Exacerbated by the Bauhaus buildings’ failure to provide shade or airflow, the heat becomes so brutal it’s almost a supporting character.

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Bauhaus Dessau: Crisp Shadows, Clear Lines and a Surprising Abundance of Colour - Bauhaus Dessau:清晰的阴影、清晰的线条和令人惊讶的丰富色彩。

Lucia Moholy, Bauhaus Building, Dessau, 1935–36. Courtesy: © Estate of Lucia Moholy and DACS

Walter Gropius’s Bauhaus building in Dessau opened in 1926 and closed in 1932. In 1943, its interiors were destroyed in an aerial bombardment. Granted UNESCO world heritage status in 1996, it was meticulously restored and re-opened a decade later, alongside what remained of the Masters’ Houses, the Carl Fieger-designed Kornhaus restaurant on the Elbe and other Bauhaus-associated buildings around the city.

Dessau is not always ‘cold, grey and snowy’. Waking up in the student block of the Bauhaus campus on an early morning this summer, the calm, cleanly arranged bedroom heated quickly through its glassy front. Sun blasted the flat facade of the dormitory block, striking angular shadows across the smooth concrete floor from the bent metal framing windows and furnishings alike. Here, too, there was no shade, and no through breeze.

Glass, steel, concrete, the visual drama of crisp shadows and clear lines: whether through László Moholy-Nagy’s photographic studies in cast light and shade or Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s gleaming towers, the combination is immediately evocative of Bauhaus modernism. Through the lens, we see the Bauhaus as a black and white world that, bundled in with Mies’s famous ‘less is more’ dictum, suggests an overall atmosphere of cool restraint.

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Bauhaus Dessau: Crisp Shadows, Clear Lines and a Surprising Abundance of Colour - Bauhaus Dessau:清晰的阴影、清晰的线条和令人惊讶的丰富色彩。

Anni Albers, Black White Yellow, 1926/65, cotton and silk, 2 x 1.2 m. Courtesy: © 2018 The Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York, DACS, London and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Yet the Bauhaus interiors are a candy box: in restoring the building to its original colours, dozens of different shades of paint were used, from intense powdery reds, oranges and blues to subtle off-whites and greys. The Bauhausers went in for ultra glossy surfaces: even metallics. Access to the auditorium – once home to Oskar Schlemmer’s choreography – is through highly lacquered ivory doors, set in dark recesses in a pale pink wall. Some seven different paint colours and textures were used in this space alone, from sand to indigo. Inside the auditorium silver-painted radiators were mounted high on the charcoal walls, looking through to a dining hall beyond with a hot orange ceiling.

The colour is not a superficial presence: it works precisely with the sightlines of the building, altering how the space is read. Its use is subtle, adventurous and goes all the way to the heart. One plane of the ceiling in Gropius’s own study is primrose: the side of his display cabin begonia orange. The F51 chair – his own design, in his own office – is upholstered in textured woven fabric in subtly variegated shades of yellow.

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Bauhaus Dessau: Crisp Shadows, Clear Lines and a Surprising Abundance of Colour - Bauhaus Dessau:清晰的阴影、清晰的线条和令人惊讶的丰富色彩。

Anni Albers, Design for Wall Hanging, 1925, gouache on paper, 34 x 27 cm. Courtesy: © 2018 The Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York, DACS, London and Museum of Modern Art, New York

In the Masters Houses – designed by Gropius and occupied by Moholy-Nagy and Schlemmer, as well as Josef and Anni Albers, Lionel Feininger, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee and Georg Muche – colour is used throughout, and even as an accent on the apparently white exteriors. The underside of Schlemmer’s terraces were painted bright yellow: Muche’s orange. Barely visible, they effectively robe the white facades in a veil of reflected colour.

The retrospective of Anni Albers work shown earlier this year at K20 in Düsseldorf, which opens at Tate Modern next week, is likewise full of revelations: particularly for those familiar with the monochrome images of her influential book On Weaving (1965). A 1950s photograph of the Rockefeller Guest House in New York is the very image of chic Modernism: glass facade, polished concrete floor, bare brick walls, and a sculpture by Alberto Giacometti. Beside the photograph, however, is a sample of the textile Albers created for the glass wall. Woven with copper threads and chenille it is… blingy. What would the room have looked like at night, with that curtain sparkling in the artificial light, sending warm, coppery shivers into the icy depths of champagne coupes and Cartier?

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Bauhaus Dessau: Crisp Shadows, Clear Lines and a Surprising Abundance of Colour - Bauhaus Dessau:清晰的阴影、清晰的线条和令人惊讶的丰富色彩。

Anni Albers, Study for Temple Emanu-El Ark Panels, 1957, foil and metallic thread on card, 43 x 37 cm. Courtesy: © 2018 The Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York and DACS, London; photograph: Tim Nighswander/Imaging4Art

Albers’s designs for the ark at the Temple Emanu-El in Dallas remain in situ, but a study is included in the show, the overall design suggested through a collage in coloured metallic foil and the weave itself through a small sample rendered in metallic threads of gold, blue, silver and green. Her weavings made in the Bauhaus during the 1920s share many of their strong tones with the colours used to paint the buildings, inside and out. Or perhaps we might more properly say that the buildings share their colours with Albers’ tapestries? Some of the designs with the closest colour affinity date from 1925, the year before Gropius’s Bauhaus was inaugurated.

Closing the day at Fieger’s Kornhaus, low light coming across the Elbe through the glass wall of the curved dining room makes a shadow play on the walls. As night falls, the globe lamps on their stubby red arms cast rosy reflections onto the walls behind. The glass sparkles in its metal window frames. This building bathed in evening sunshine is not white but golden.

Main image: Anni Albers, Design for Wall Hanging, 1926, gouache on paper, 30 x 22 cm. Courtesy: © 2018 The Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York, DACS, London and Museum of Modern Art, New York

Hettie Judah

Hettie Judah is a writer based in London.





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