Everything and Everywhere is a School: What Can We Learn from the 4th Istanbul Design Biennial? – 每一个地方和每一个地方都是一所学校:我们可以从第四伊斯坦布尔设计双年展中学到什么?

‘observing eyes, flexible minds and skilled hands’

Josef Albers, Search Versus Re-Search (1969)

Since its inception, in 2012, the Istanbul Design Biennial has carved a space for thought-provoking and critical curatorial positions unlike any other event in the global design calendar. Titled ‘A School of Schools’ and curated by Jan Boelen with Nadine Botha and Vera Sacchetti, its fourth edition looks to education and learning paradigms that, as the curators write in their introductory essay, look ‘beyond design as solution and school as institution’. The curatorial premise builds upon a century-long history of pedagogical critique and cultural radicalism – from the 1919 Bauhaus Manifesto, to Black Mountain College, to the ‘hippie modernism’ of the Whole Earth Catalog and the Italian Global Tools initiative, among many others. While inspired by such precedents, the biennial seeks to interrogate their legacy, as well as to reflect on the inadequateness of extant educational models vis-à-vis the uneven socio-economic conditions of the global present. Searching for alternative propositions to rescue design education from the functional pragmatism of industrialized creativity, ‘A School of Schools’ asks: ‘What if the school we need now is a personal attitude of questioning and figuring out?’

This is an urgent and ambitious task – the 700 submissions received in response to the open call attest to its resonance. (Of these, a reported 200 international practitioners were eventually selected to participate.) Nonetheless, in refusing to offer concrete solutions, the curatorial impetus of ‘everything and everywhere is a school’ falls prey to a nostalgic neo-utopianism that never fully engages with its subject. The show advocates for the re-positioning of learning in ‘spaces of exception’ in which ‘the temporary suspension from normal functioning’ and ‘empowered doubt’ would encourage free thinking; however, this feels anachronistically at odds with real-world predicaments of social insecurity and occupational precarity.

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Everything and Everywhere is a School: What Can We Learn from the 4th Istanbul Design Biennial? - 每一个地方和每一个地方都是一所学校:我们可以从第四伊斯坦布尔设计双年展中学到什么?

Nur Horsanali, Halletmek, 2017–18, installation view. Courtesy: the artist and Istanbul Design Biennial

‘This should be one of those millennial moments where people [i.e. students] descend onto the streets,’ observes professor Peter Lang, of the Royal Institute of Art in Stockholm, in his contribution to the biennial reader. He recalls, that ‘the biggest takeway from the Italian radicals [of the late 1960s and ’70s] is that every time they got really pissed off with the education they were receiving, they rebelled’. And so, in an attempt to transform ‘streets into corridors’ and the city into a classroom, the biennial has adopted a distributed strategy spanning a website, a reader with essays and selected interviews, a public programme running for the duration of the show and an exhibition across six venues. All iconic cultural institutions in the central district of Beyoğlu, these play host to six ‘schools’, looking at themes of Unmaking (Akbank Sanat), Currents (Yapı Kredi Culture Centre), Earth (Arter Gallery), Scales (Pera Museum), Time (SALT Galata) and Digestion (Studio-X Istanbul). Despite its intention to expand beyond institutional confines, however, the exhibition remains safely sheltered in its own custom-made scenography – a modular structure designed by architect Aslı Çiçek and product designer Lukas Wegwerth, which objectifies rather than mobilizes the collaborative, networked character of the projects on show.

The works that best embody a realignment of design, education and everyday reality are to be found in the Unmaking and Currents sections. The first of these looks at the expanded nature of the ‘workshop’ and changing notions of labour and human creation. It includes the excellent Water School (2018). This speculative project – spearheaded by designer Jurgen Bey, with a vast group of collaborators – centres around the creation of a primary school whose construction and curriculum would address the topic of water shortage.

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Everything and Everywhere is a School: What Can We Learn from the 4th Istanbul Design Biennial? - 每一个地方和每一个地方都是一所学校:我们可以从第四伊斯坦布尔设计双年展中学到什么?

Irene Posch, The Embroidered Computer, 2018, installation view. Courtesy: the artist and Istanbul Design Biennial

In Currents, we find examples of how design can materialize unseen connections across cultural or geopolitical networks. Stitching Worlds (2014–18) is the outcome of a collaborative research project run by Ebru Kurbak at the University of Applied Arts in Vienna, using textile production techniques to make electronics. The work of the hand and machine swap, revealing unexpected potentials for traditional skills and historic means of production. The results are exquisite pieces of functional craftsmanship such as The Embroidered Computer, made of 369 electromechanical relay switches knitted using electricity-conducting threads and magnetic beads, which allows simple algorithmic programming.

In an adjacent room, the Transitional School (2018) by the Pearl River Delta-based Aformal Academy and Amsterdam-based ARK.WORLD, is a multi-layered archive of footage, objects and drawings. It presents China’s Belt & Road Initiative as a physical as well as an immaterial journey, retracing Eurasian flows along the historic Silk Road. Developed through workshops held in Bangkok, Doha, Istanbul and Saigon, the project uses specific objects and materials to demonstrate entanglements across national boundaries. During the workshop in Istanbul, for instance, a clock that sings ezan (call to prayer) and a Şahan Gökbakar robot doll, both popular Turkish items made in China, were deconstructed and the pathways embedded in the making of their various components mapped out, revealing underlying infrastructures of trade and production.

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Everything and Everywhere is a School: What Can We Learn from the 4th Istanbul Design Biennial? - 每一个地方和每一个地方都是一所学校:我们可以从第四伊斯坦布尔设计双年展中学到什么?

Demystification Committee, The Offshore Economist, 2018, taken from Staying Alive, 2018. Courtesy: the artists and Istanbul Design Biennial

In the Earth school, where environmental crisis serves as a thematic anchor, Staying Alive (2018) is a collection of commercial products and other projects that present survival strategies responding to financial, ecological or occupational scarcity. Curated by design duo Solsulsal, it includes their own Neo-Survival School – a tepee-shaped unit that was installed in Amsterdamse Bos in the summer of 2016 as part of the Cure Park programme. Inspired by the Tiny House movement, originally a response to the 2008 housing crisis, it offered classes on food biohacking and doomsday design, among others.

Boelen is a prolific practitioner whose curatorial projects and teaching as head of the Social Design department at Design Academy Eindhoven have deservedly cultivated a following that is rather heavily present in the show. This does not weaken the biennial’s premise, but it does reinforce design criticism’s longstanding Eurocentricism, thus underscoring the exhibition’s partiality. Furthermore, the critical, social and speculative practices that characterize ‘A School of Schools’ are not entirely new. ‘Critical design’ is a term coined by Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby in 1999, and a key part of the Design Interaction programme that they founded and led at London’s Royal College of Art between 2005–15 (both now teach at The New School in New York). Their immensely resourceful book Speculative Everything (2013) contextualizes conceptual practices at the turn of the new millennium, and consequently those present in the biennale, in terms of a response to the failed social dreams of the modern era and the desire to build updated, post-radical versions of a common future. Employing speculative scenarios to test possibilities rather than to predefine outcomes, critical design can be used to question extant socio-economic orders.

Whether fighting the increasing bureaucratization of education or the pressures imposed by today’s market-ready solutionism, design practitioners should not be retreating into safe spaces of exemption but engaging with new social horizons and common values. It is the job of educational institutions to provide the critical and practical tools needed to do so.

The 4th Istanbul Design Biennial,‘A School of Schools’, runs in various venues until 4 November.

All quotes from ‘A School of Schools – Doubting a Biennial, Doubting Design’, curatorial essay by Jan Boelen, Vera Sacchetti and Nadine Botha in Design as Learning – A School of Schools Reader, 2018

Main image: Nur Horsanali, Halletmek, 2017–18. Courtesy: the artist and Istanbul Design Biennial

Beatrice Leanza

Beatrice Leanza is a cultural strategist and design critic based in Beijing. She is the former creative director of Beijing Design Week (2013–16), chief curator of the ongoing research project ‘Across Chinese Cities’, featured at the Venice Architecture Biennale (2014, 2016 and 2018 editions) and co-founder of The Global School, China’s first independent institute for design and creative research.

Features /

Istanbul Design Biennial
Ebru Kurbak
Aformal Academy
ARK.WORLD
Şahan Gökbakar
Solsulsal
Design
Opinion


“观察的眼睛,灵活的头脑和熟练的手”约瑟夫·阿尔伯斯,搜索与再搜索(1969)伊斯坦布尔设计双年展自2012年成立以来,已经为发人深省和关键的策展位置开辟了一块空间,这与全球设计日历上的其他活动不同。它的第四版名为“学校学校”,由简·波伦与纳丁·博塔和维拉·萨切蒂共同策划,它着眼于教育和学习范式,正如馆长在介绍性论文中写道,这些范式超越了设计作为解决方案,学校作为机构。策展的前提是建立在教育学批评和文化激进主义长达一个世纪的历史之上的——从1919年包豪斯宣言,到黑山学院,到整个地球目录的“嬉皮士现代主义”和意大利全球工具倡议等等。尽管受到这些先例的启发,该双年期旨在审问它们的遗产,并反思现有教育模式相对于当前全球不均衡的社会经济条件的不足。“一所学校”在寻找从工业化创意的功能实用主义中拯救设计教育的替代性命题时问道:“如果我们现在需要的学校是个人质疑和思考的态度怎么办?”这是一项紧迫而雄心勃勃的任务,700个提交的回应公开呼吁证明了它的共鸣。(据报道,其中有200名国际实践者最终被选中参加。)然而,由于拒绝提供具体解决方案,“万事万物皆是一所学校”的策展动力成为怀旧的新乌托邦主义的牺牲品,这种新乌托邦主义从来没有完全参与过它的次级活动。发射型计算机断层扫描仪。该节目提倡将学习重新定位在“例外空间”中,其中“暂时停止正常运作”和“授权怀疑”将鼓励自由思考;然而,这与现实世界的社会不安全的困境有着不合时宜的矛盾。以及职业的重要性。DSSDY933 7.JPG WPA6021602IMG Nur Horsanali,HaleTeMK,2017 - 18,安装视图。礼貌:这位艺术家和伊斯坦布尔设计双年展“这应该是人们(即学生)走上街头的千禧年时光之一,”斯德哥尔摩皇家艺术学院的彼得·朗教授在对每两年一次的读者的贡献中说。他回忆说,“意大利激进分子(20世纪60年代末和70年代)最大的收获就是他们每次真正对接受的教育感到生气,就会反抗。”因此,为了将“街道变为走廊”和城市变为教室,该双年展采用了一种分布式策略,包括网站、读者随笔和选定的采访、在展会期间运行的公共节目,以及跨越六个场馆的展览。贝约卢中心区的所有标志性文化机构,这些戏剧主办了六个“学校”,主题包括:永恒(Akbank Sanat)、水流(Yap Kredi文化中心)、地球(艺术画廊)、比例尺(Pera Museum)、时间(SALT Galata)和消化(Studio-X伊斯坦布尔)。然而,尽管展会打算扩展到机构范围之外,但展会仍然安全地藏身于它自己的定制场景中——由建筑师阿斯利克(Asliek)和产品设计师卢卡斯·沃思(Lukas Wegwerth)设计的模块化结构,它客观化而不是动员合作。VE,展示项目的网络化特征。那些最能体现设计、教育和日常现实的重新组合的作品可以在《废除》和《当下》部分找到。第一部分着眼于“车间”的扩展性质和劳动和人类创造观念的改变。其中包括优秀水校(2018)。这个由设计师Jurgen Bey带领、由众多合作者共同发起的投机性项目围绕着一所小学的创建展开,该小学的建设和课程将解决缺水问题。embroidered-computer.jpg Everything and Everywhere is a School: What Can We Learn from the 4th Istanbul Design Biennial? - 每一个地方和每一个地方都是一所学校:我们可以从第四伊斯坦布尔设计双年展中学到什么? Irene Posch, The Embroidered Computer, 2018, installation view. Courtesy: the artist and Istanbul Design Biennial In Currents, we find examples of how design can materialize unseen connections across cultural or geopolitical networks. Stitching Worlds (2014–18) is the outcome of a collaborative research project run by Ebru Kurbak at the University of Applied Arts in Vienna, using textile production techniques to make electronics. 手工和机器交换工作,揭示了传统技能和历史生产手段的潜在潜力。The results are exquisite pieces of functional craftsmanship such as The Embroidered Computer, made of 369 electromechanical relay switches knitted using electricity-conducting threads and magnetic beads, which allows simple algorithmic programming. In an adjacent room, the Transitional School (2018) by the Pearl River Delta-based Aformal Academy and Amsterdam-based ARK.WORLD, is a multi-layered archive of footage, objects and drawings. It presents China’s Belt & Road Initiative as a physical as well as an immaterial journey, retracing Eurasian flows along the historic Silk Road. Developed through workshops held in Bangkok, Doha, Istanbul and Saigon, the project uses specific objects and materials to demonstrate entanglements across national boundaries. 在伊斯坦布尔期间,车间埃赞实例,钟唱(祷告)和Ş阿罕Gökbakar机器人娃娃,流行的土耳其项目在中国,进行了解构和嵌入在各种组件映射出的途径,揭示底层基础设施贸易和生产。dsd_1363.jpg Everything and Everywhere is a School: What Can We Learn from the 4th Istanbul Design Biennial? - 每一个地方和每一个地方都是一所学校:我们可以从第四伊斯坦布尔设计双年展中学到什么?公开委员会,海上的经济学家, 2018,从 活着, 2018。礼貌:艺术家和伊斯坦布尔设计在地球学校的双年展,在环境危机为主题的锚,活着(2018)是一家集商业产品和其他项目,目前的生存策略应对金融、生态或OC杯中稀缺性。策划设计多solsulsal,包括他们自己的新学校的生存–帐篷形单元,安装在阿姆斯特丹的BOS 2016夏季为治愈公园计划的一部分。灵感的小房子运动,原来2008的住房危机的回应,它提供的类食品生物黑客和末日的设计,其中。·伯伦是一位多产的实践者的策展项目和教学作为爱恩德霍芬设计学院社会系主任已经当之无愧的种植设计,是目前在显示相当严重。这并不削弱双年展的前提,但它确实加强设计批评的长期eurocentricism,强调展览的偏好。此外,“学校派”的批判、社会和投机实践并不是全新的。“关键设计”一词是由Anthony Dunne和Fiona Raby在1999,和一个关键部分的设计互动节目,他们创建和领导的伦敦皇家艺术学院在2005–15(现在在纽约的新教学校)。他们神通广大的书投机的一切(2013)背景的概念的做法,在新千年之交,因此那些在双年展,在应对失败的现代社会梦想和希望建立更新后的条款,激进的我共同未来的故事采用投机的情况下测试的可能性而不是预定义的结果,关键的设计可以用来质疑现存的社会经济秩序。是否有战斗力的日益官僚化的教育或以今天的市场准备解决施加的压力,设计人员不应撤退到安全空间,但豁免与新的社会视野和共同的价值观。教育机构的工作是提供这样做所需的关键和实际工具。第四届伊斯坦布尔设计双年展“学校学校”在各个场馆运行,直到11月4日。所有的报价从一所学校的学校–怀疑一个双年展,怀疑设计策展的文章,由Jan Boelen、Vera Sacchetti和Nadine Botha设计的学习–学校学校的读者,2018 主要形象:Nur Horsanali, halletmek,2017–18。礼貌:艺术家和伊斯坦布尔设计双年展比阿特丽丝黎恩萨比阿特丽丝黎恩萨是文化策略和基于北京的设计评论家。她是北京设计周前创意总监(2013–16),对正在进行的研究项目的首席策展人”在中国的城市,成为在威尼斯建筑双年展(2014, 2016版和2018版)和联合全球的学校,中国第一所独立学院F或者设计和创造性的研究。特点/伊斯坦布尔设计双年展厄布鲁kurbak正式学院ark.worldŞ阿罕Gökbakar solsulsal设计意见


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