特纳获奖艺术家设计“彼得卢大屠杀”遇难者纪念碑

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02 Nov 2018
News /

Turner Prize-winning Artist Jeremy Deller Designs Memorial to Peterloo Massacre Victims

英国曼彻斯特披露了一项花费高达100万英镑的纪念碑修建计划,用以纪念1819年8月16日发生在英国曼彻斯特圣彼得广场上“Peterloo Massacre彼得卢大屠杀”的受害者。
Turner Prize-winning Artist Jeremy Deller Designs Memorial to Peterloo Massacre Victims - 特纳获奖艺术家杰瑞米戴勒设计纪念彼得洛大屠杀遇难者纪念碑描绘1819年“彼得卢大屠杀”的版画。致谢:维基共享
为了纪念1819年“彼得卢大屠杀”的受害者,在曼彻斯特建造一座巨大的圆形纪念碑的计划已经揭晓。这个100万英镑的纪念碑是由特纳奖得主Jeremy Deller杰里米·戴勒与建筑师Caruso St John卡鲁索·圣约翰合作设计的。
由于对法战争结束后,英国国内经济凋敝,政府日趋反动,导致人民强烈不满。1819年8月16日,激进派召集了60000人(有资料为80000人)的和平集会,抗议者聚集在曼彻斯特的圣彼得广场听取民主派的演讲,要求进行议会改革。曼彻斯特市政长官命令逮捕演讲者亨特遭到群众反对,事先已聚集在会场上的军警和骑兵立即出动,挥舞着军刀肆意砍杀和践踏手无寸铁的群众,发起了一场造成18人死亡,650多人受伤的流血惨案。(事后亨特在内的许多参与者被以谋叛罪被监禁两年。英政府于同年 11 月颁布六项法案,禁止集会、游行,限制出版自由等。法案被群众称为“封口令”,激起更强烈的反抗。1820年4月,格拉斯哥爆发了有6万工人参加的政治大罢工
由于镇压这次集会的军队,有的曾参加过4年前的滑铁卢战役,这起事件被称为民众讥讽为“彼得卢大屠杀”——对1815滑铁卢战役的一个阴暗讽刺。
Turner Prize-winning Artist Jeremy Deller Designs Memorial to Peterloo Massacre Victims - 特纳获奖艺术家杰瑞米戴勒设计纪念彼得洛大屠杀遇难者纪念碑
纪念碑设计图,致谢:Jeremy Deller杰里米·戴勒和Caruso St John Architects卡鲁索·圣约翰建筑师事务所
设计成同心台阶的“小山”意在用石头建造一个凸起的土墩——这个土墩来自英国和前大英帝国各地——Deller的设计采用了大屠杀中遇难者的名字以及他们来自的城镇和村庄。在纪念碑上标注的另外一组指南针则借鉴了其他各国关于起义的历史事件。台阶上的一系列洞将作为未来聚会时插入旗帜的位置。
该纪念馆定于明年8月——大屠杀200周年纪念日——在原事件发生地附近开放。Deller在接受英国广播公司采访时说,这是一座为民众而生的纪念碑。“这不是只能看不能碰的事情,而是值得去关注的事情。”
纪念碑的消息传来之际,正值人们对“彼得卢大屠杀”重新产生兴趣之际。本周,一部由Mike Leigh迈克·雷导演、Maxine Peake玛辛·佩克主演并由Amazon Studios亚马逊工作室发行的关于大屠杀的电影正在英国电影院上映。与此同时,慈善机构曼彻斯特历史学校正在为“Peterloo彼得卢大屠杀”进入英国所有学校的历史课本而进行宣传。

FRIZE特稿 ARThing编译

2 Nov 2018

Plans for the GBP£1 million monument have been revealed in Manchester

Turner Prize-winning Artist Jeremy Deller Designs Memorial to Peterloo Massacre Victims - 特纳获奖艺术家杰瑞米戴勒设计纪念彼得洛大屠杀遇难者纪念碑

Print depicting the massacre at Peterloo, 1819. Courtesy: Wikimedia Commons

Plans for a vast circular monument, to be built in tribute to the victims of the 1819 Peterloo Massacre, have been unveiled in Manchester. The GBP£1 million memorial has been designed by the Turner Prize-winning artist Jeremy Deller in collaboration with Caruso St John architects.

On 16 August 1819, cavalrymen wielding sabres charged a peaceful rally of 60,000 people calling for parliamentary reform. The protesters were gathered in St Peter’s Field, Manchester, listening to pro-democracy speeches. 18 people were killed and more than 650 were injured. The incident became known as the Peterloo Massacre – a darkly ironic nod to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

Turner Prize-winning Artist Jeremy Deller Designs Memorial to Peterloo Massacre Victims - 特纳获奖艺术家杰瑞米戴勒设计纪念彼得洛大屠杀遇难者纪念碑

Monument designs. Courtesy: Jeremy Deller and Caruso St John Architects

Designed as a ‘hill’ of concentric steps, meant to evoke a burial mound – constructed out of stone from across the UK and former British empire – Deller’s design features the names of the people killed in the massacre, and the towns and villages they came from. An additional set of compass points marked onto the memorial will reference other historic uprisings, including China’s Tiananmen protests. A series of holes in the steps will function as banner holders for future gatherings.

The memorial is scheduled to open next August – on the massacre’s 200th anniversary – near the site of the original incident. ‘It is a monument that’s for the public to inhabit – to be one to hang around on and assemble at,’ Deller told the BBC. ‘It is not something to be looked at and not touched – it is something to be on.’

News of the memorial comes at a time of renewed interest in Peterloo. A film about the massacre, directed by Mike Leigh, starring Maxine Peake and distributed by Amazon Studios, opens in UK cinemas this week. Meanwhile charity Manchester Histories is campaigning for Peterloo to be taught in history classes in all UK schools.


 




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