From V&A Dundee to South London Gallery, The Year in Buildings – 从V&A Dundee到伦敦南部美术馆,建筑年

‘London is Re-Open’, an updated version of Mayor Sadiq Khan’s 2016 slogan should read, following the recent completion of renovations, refurbishments and low-key extensions across a flurry of the city’s cultural institutions. Most successful among them has been Haworth Tompkins’s 12-year project at Battersea Arts Centre, the scope of which was dramatically expanded after a catastrophic fire in 2015. The firm’s work on the Grand Hall is a masterful combination of conservation and reconstruction – the space’s charred walls remain as testament to the blaze, while the new plywood ceiling abstracts the destroyed plaster pattern of its 19th century predecessor, once part of the town hall.  

Across the city to the southeast, Victorian civic structures have also been reinterpreted by 6a Architects and Assemble at the South London Gallery and new Goldsmiths Centre for Contemporary Art (CCA), respectively. 6a have performed a characteristically subtle reconfiguration of the former Peckham fire station to add new galleries plus a kitchen for performances and events, while Assemble’s CCA transforms the boiler house and laundry rooms of a Victorian bathhouse into a new gallery on the campus of Goldsmiths College. With striking uses of murky-green cement-fibre panels on and the glorious retention of the baths’ cast iron tanks as new gallery spaces – white cubes, these are not. 


From V&A Dundee to South London Gallery, The Year in Buildings - 从V&A Dundee到伦敦南部美术馆,建筑年

South London Gallery. Courtesy: South London Gallery

David Chipperfield, often the inspiration for these historically sensitive projects following his ground-breaking work on Berlin’s Neues Museum, was also completing work in London this year, this time at the Royal Academy of Arts (RA). His renovation rationalized the RA’s labyrinthine Piccadilly site by connecting Burlington House, home to the institution since 19th century, with Burlington Gardens, which houses a new lecture hall and gallery spaces, via an underground passageway. The renovated RA includes a dedicated Architecture Studio where the provocative ‘Invisible Landscapes’ programme, curated by Gonzalo Herrero Delicado, continues its exploration of the digital in the built environment into 2019. 

Similarly regal, the Royal Opera House completed its six year ‘Open Up’ project in September, to a design by Stanton Williams. In an attempt to draw in different demographics, the refurbishment has focused on free access to a new foyer and greater legibility, although the stuffy material palette may stand in its way. On the South Bank, Feilden Clegg Bradley Studio’s touch on the Hayward Gallery has been thankfully light, merely accentuating the original proportions of the 1968 gallery – not unlike the refurbishment work of John Puttick Associates at another brutalist favourite, Preston Bus Station, and S1 Art Space’s much-expanded premises in a former parking garage on Sheffield’s Park Hill estate. 


From V&A Dundee to South London Gallery, The Year in Buildings - 从V&A Dundee到伦敦南部美术馆,建筑年

Weston Bridge and The Lovelace Courtyard, 2018. Courtesy: Simon Menges

North of the border it’s been a mixed year for fans of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. In June, his 1909 art nouveau masterpiece building for Glasgow School of Art suffered a second devastating fire in four years, leaving its future fate uncertain despite some optimism from the school and Glasgow Council. Meanwhile on the Angus coast, Mackintosh’s Oak Room, built for a tea house in 1908 and deconstructed piece-by-piece in the early 1970s has been masterfully rebuilt for the V&A Dundee, a landmark project for Scotland and the UK designed by Kengo Kuma. The museum is a muscular, over-budget eruption of stratified concrete that promises to be a ‘living room for the city’. While the museum is certainly drawing in visitors from Dundee and beyond – over 100,000 in its first three weeks – its iconic landmark arrival in the city has drawn criticism around the ‘Bilbao-effect’ and its potentially negative impact on the rest of the city’s creative scene. 

Another ‘living room for the city’ opened in Helsinki in the form of Oodi (‘ode’ in Finnish), the capital’s new central library designed by local firm ALA Architects. The €100 million project rethinks library typology for the 21st century by offering facilities such as sewing machines, 3D printers and a photography studio, alongside 100,000 books that sit eye-to-eye with the national Parliament House on a celestial upper floor. The new Qatar National Library, designed by OMA’s Ellen van Loon, makes a similarly valuable addition to the global biblioscape, albeit in a radically different context. The rhomboid structure contains a vast atrium – supposedly OMA’s largest room to date – designed to create civic space where it is otherwise lacking in Doha. Meanwhile in the UK, over 100 public libraries were closed in 2018.  


From V&A Dundee to South London Gallery, The Year in Buildings - 从V&A Dundee到伦敦南部美术馆,建筑年

Royal Opera House, Linbury Theatre, 2018. Courtesy: Hufton+Crow

Economic austerity was also to blame for the devastating fire in September at Brazil’s Museu Nacional, a 200-year-old building that was suffering from funding cuts and inadequate maintenance while holding 500 years of cultural memory. Only the election of Jair Bolsonaro in October could have made things worse. There is, however, some solace to be found in an emerging group of Brazilian architects achieving global recognition for intelligent and environmentally sensitive work. The studios Aleph Zero and Rosenbaum were awarded the biennial Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) International Prize for their collaborative project Children Village in Canuanã, a delicate timber boarding school beneath a huge canopy with immaculate detailing. Carla Juçaba has also been recognized for the modest humanism of her domestic work in Rio and more sculptural project for the Vatican pavilion at this year’s Venice architecture biennale. Brazilian legend Paulo Mendes da Rocha was also present at the biennale, fresh from transforming a shopping centre into a public amenity in São Paulo complete with a library, dental clinic and rooftop swimming pool – a vitally optimistic gesture in an otherwise catastrophic year for Brazil.


From V&A Dundee to South London Gallery, The Year in Buildings - 从V&A Dundee到伦敦南部美术馆,建筑年

Battersea Arts Centre, 2018. Courtesy: Fred Howarth

Mendes da Rocha’s contribution to the Venice biennale was a simple line drawing, one of a sprawling set of interpretations to the Freespace theme set out by curators Yvonne Farrell and Shelley McNamara of Dublin-based Grafton Architects. Most attention, however, was drawn away from the main exhibition to the V&A’s controversial display of a segment of demolished London housing estate, Robin Hood Gardens, and to the Unfolding Pavilion, a fringe event that saw an apartment in the modernist Giudecca housing estate refurbished and transformed for the duration of the biennale, before being returned to the city government. The latter’s approach showed a political awareness and self-consciousness lacking from the V&A’s transplanted facade display, something they are counter-balancing with a new exhibition on architectural experiments in social housing (which runs until May 2019).

London’s Design Museum is exploring similar ground in two current exhibitions – of work by Peter Barber, whose sociable and social housing projects are among the best being constructed in the capital today, and ‘Home Futures’, curated by Eszter Steierhoffer, which picks apart the history of the future of the home. These, following MAIO architects’ ‘Home: Act I’ installation, which inaugurated the RA Architecture Studio in May, and Frida Escobedo’s evocation of the domestic in her Serpentine Pavillion, suggest there’s something on our mind. Perhaps next year we should build some houses?

Main image: V&A Dundee, 2018. Courtesy: Hufton+Crow

George Kafka

George Kafka is a writer and editor living in London. He writes regularly for architecture and design publications including Metropolis, The Architectural Review, Blueprint and Disegno

Opinion /

George Kafka
Battersea Arts Centre
V&A Dundee
South London Gallery
Royal Academy

“伦敦重新开放”,这是萨迪克·汗市长2016年口号的更新版本,最近完成了整修、翻新和城市文化机构的低调扩建。其中最成功的是哈沃斯·汤普金斯在巴特西艺术中心的为期12年的项目,在2015年的一场灾难性火灾后,该项目的规模大大扩大了。该公司在大厅的工作是保护和重建的巧妙结合-空间的烧焦的墙壁仍然作为火焰的证明,而新的胶合板天花板抽象出其19世纪前任,曾经是市政厅的一部分被破坏的石膏图案。横跨整个城市东南部,维多利亚时代的市政结构也分别由伦敦南部美术馆的6a建筑师和组合会以及新的金匠当代艺术中心重新诠释。6a对前派克汉姆消防站进行了具有特色的微妙改造,增加了新的画廊,以及用于演出和活动的厨房,而Assemble的CCA则将维多利亚式浴室的锅炉房和洗衣房改造成戈德史密斯学院校园内的新画廊。由于灰绿色水泥纤维板的醒目使用,以及浴缸铸铁罐作为新画廊空间的光荣保留——白色立方体,这些画廊空间不是。04_slg_fire._jd.jpg From V&A Dundee to South London Gallery, The Year in Buildings - 从V&A Dundee到伦敦南部美术馆,建筑年 South.Gallery。礼貌:南伦敦画廊大卫·齐伯菲尔德,经常是在柏林纽斯博物馆开创性工作之后对这些历史敏感项目的灵感,今年也在伦敦完成工作,这次是在皇家艺术学院(RA)。他的翻新使皇家艺术学院迷宫般的皮卡迪利遗址合理化,通过地下通道将伯灵顿庄园(从19世纪起就是该学院的所在地)和伯灵顿花园连接起来,伯灵顿花园容纳了一个新的演讲厅和画廊空间。经过翻修的RA包括一个专用的建筑工作室,其中由Gonzalo Herrero Delicado策划的具有挑衅性的“隐形景观”项目持续到2019年在建筑环境中探索数字。同样是皇家的,皇家歌剧院在9月完成了为期6年的“开放”项目,由S.钽威廉姆斯。为了吸引不同的人群,整修的重点是自由进入新门厅和更好的易读性,尽管闷热的材料调色板可能会阻碍它的发展。在南岸,菲尔登·克莱格·布拉德利工作室对海沃德美术馆的触感非常轻,仅仅强调了1968年美术馆的原有比例——这与约翰·普蒂克联营公司对另一个野蛮主义者最爱的普雷斯顿公交车站和S1艺术空间扩建过的老爸的房地的翻新工作并无不同。谢菲尔德公园山庄的rking车库。1._weston_bridge_and_the_lovelace_court._c._simon_menges.jpg From V&A Dundee to South London Gallery, The Year in Buildings - 从V&A Dundee到伦敦南部美术馆,建筑年 Weston桥和Lovelace庭院,2018。礼貌:西蒙·孟格斯(Simon Menges)在边境以北,对查尔斯·伦尼·麦金托什(Charles Rennie Mackintosh)的粉丝来说,这是喜忧参半的一年。今年6月,他1909年为格拉斯哥艺术学院创作的新艺术杰作大楼在四年内遭受了第二次毁灭性的火灾,尽管学校和格拉斯哥委员会对此表示乐观,但其未来命运仍不确定。同时,在安格斯海岸,麦金托什的橡树屋在1908年为一个茶馆建造,70年代初被逐块解构,现在已为V&A Dundee精心重建,V&A Dundee是由Kengo Kuma为苏格兰和英国设计的具有里程碑意义的项目。博物馆是一座肌肉发达、预算超支的层状混凝土喷发,有望成为“城市的起居室”。虽然博物馆确实吸引了来自邓迪及更远地区的游客——前三周超过10万人——但它标志性的地标性建筑抵达了该市,这引起了对“毕尔巴鄂效应”及其可能对城市其他创意场景造成的负面影响的批评。另一个“城市客厅”在赫尔辛基开放。以Oodi(芬兰语的“ode”)的形式,首都的新中心图书馆由当地的ALA建筑师事务所设计。这项耗资1亿欧元的项目通过提供缝纫机、3D打印机和摄影工作室等设施来重新思考21世纪的图书馆类型,同时还提供10万本图书,这些图书与位于天体上层的美国国会众议院(NationalParliamentHouse)面对面。新卡塔尔国家图书馆由OMA的艾伦·范·洛恩设计,为全球书目增添了同样有价值的内容,尽管背景完全不同。菱形结构包含一个巨大的中庭——据称是OMA迄今为止最大的房间——设计用来创造在多哈本来就缺乏的公民空间。与此同时,英国有100多家公共图书馆在2018年关闭。Stanton_williams_._opera_house_linbury_theatre_chuftoncrow_001_jpg From V&A Dundee to South London Gallery, The Year in Buildings - 从V&A Dundee到伦敦南部美术馆,建筑年皇家歌剧院,林伯里剧院,2018。礼貌:9月份在巴西民族博物馆(Museu Nacional)发生的毁灭性火灾也归咎于哈夫顿+乌鸦(Crow)经济紧缩。这座200年历史的建筑在保存了500年的文化记忆的同时,也遭受了资金削减和维护不当的痛苦。只有缪尔·博尔索纳罗在10月份当选,事情才会变得更糟。然而,在新兴的巴西建筑师群体中,对于智慧和环境敏感的工作获得了全球认可,从中可以找到一些慰藉。工作室Aleph Zero和Rosenbaum因其合作项目“卡南芒儿童村”而获得两年一度的英国皇家建筑师学会(RIBA)国际奖,该村位于一片巨大的树冠之下,是一所精美的木制寄宿学校。卡拉·朱亚巴还因其在里约热内卢的作品中谦逊的人道主义精神以及今年威尼斯建筑双年展上梵蒂冈馆的更多雕塑项目而受到认可。巴西传奇人物保罗·门德斯·达·罗查也出席了这次双年展,他刚刚从圣保罗的购物中心改造成公共设施,并配有图书馆、牙科诊所和屋顶游泳池,这对巴西来说是一个充满活力的乐观姿态。bac4_._fred_howarth.jpg From V&A Dundee to South London Gallery, The Year in Buildings - 从V&A Dundee到伦敦南部美术馆,建筑年 Battersea艺术中心,2018。礼貌:弗雷德·霍华斯·门德斯·达·罗查对威尼斯双年展的贡献是一幅简单的线描,这是对由都柏林格拉夫顿建筑师事务所的馆长伊冯·法雷尔和雪莱·麦克纳马拉提出的自由空间主题的一组漫无边际的解释之一。然而,大部分注意力都从主要展览上转移开了,V&A展出了一部分被拆毁的伦敦住宅小区,罗宾汉花园,以及“展开馆”,这是一次边缘活动,目睹了现代主义者Giudecca住宅小区的公寓在两年展期间被翻新和改造。回到市政府。后者的方法显示出V&A移植的正面展示缺乏政治意识和自我意识,这与新举办的关于社会住房的建筑实验的展览(一直持续到2019年5月)相抵触。伦敦设计博物馆目前正在两个展览中探索相似的领域——彼得·巴伯的作品,他的社会和社会住房项目是当今首都建设得最好的项目之一,以及由Eszter Steierh.策划的“家庭未来”,该展览将家庭未来的历史分门别类。根据MAIO建筑师“家:第一幕”的安装,五月份RA建筑工作室正式落成,以及Frida Escobedo在她的蛇形亭子中唤起了人们对家庭的回忆,这些都表明我们心里有些想法。也许明年我们应该建些房子?主图:V&A Dundee,2018。礼貌:哈夫顿+乌鸦乔治·卡夫卡·乔治·卡夫卡是住在伦敦的作家和编辑。他定期为《大都会》、《建筑评论》、《蓝图》和《迪斯格诺》等建筑和设计出版物撰稿。伦敦南部美术馆皇家学院意见


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