克洛伊·阿里迪吉斯:佩特拉·凯利

关于佩特拉·凯利1992年10月去世的一些细节,没有什么比“必须”一词在打字过程中出现的中断更具有象征意义的了。在亲戚们发出警报后,德国警方进入她在波恩的房子,发现两具尸体腐烂得无法辨认。伴随着这可怕的场景,是一台电动打字机发出的不祥的嗡嗡声,这台打字机已经运行了近三个星期了。马车里放着一张纸,凯利的合伙人格特·巴斯蒂安(Gert Bastian)在上面写了一封信给他的律师。在输入可能是m_ssen(must)这个词的过程中,他停了下来——他只得到了“m_s”。

凯利短暂的一生——被责任感、紧迫感、持续的“必须”感所驱动,被认为她做得不够的想法所困扰——可以用这个被删节的词来概括。凯利去世时只有44岁,她的被杀在全世界掀起了巨大反响。作为1979年德国绿党的联合创始人,她一直是绿党最显眼的面孔。她的事业是多方面的——核裁军、土著和妇女权利、可持续发展、非军事化、苏联集团民主化、西藏解放——她尽一切可能将其引入政府政策。然而,成为一名女政治家并不容易,她的热情经常被反对党嘲笑。在1983年至1990年担任议会席位的德国联邦议院,麦克风被永久调到适合男人的声音,使女人的声音变得异常刺耳;只有经过一些竞选活动,每次女人说话时,他们才会回到默认模式。

凯利意识到联合政府的危险,警告绿党妥协和分享权力的危险。非暴力的公民不服从是她最喜欢的武器,即使她是国会议员,她也会在联邦议院外抗议。多年来,她的立场孤立了她;一些人后来认为,她温和的存在和被绿党抛弃使她变得脆弱和暴露。直到今天,死亡的情况仍然是一个谜。他们发现凯利躺在床上,一颗子弹射到了她的太阳穴,巴斯蒂安则在走廊里,一颗子弹射到了他的前额,他的枪就躺在附近。许多人认为他谋杀了她。其他人则坚持认为这是一个有政治动机的第三方——他们的警报系统已经关闭,阳台门也没有上锁。不管真相如何,调查在24小时内就结束了。

她死后两年,凯利的作品集绿色思维!发表了关于环境主义、女权主义和非暴力的论文。这是一个来自坟墓之外的强大召唤。每一章都是对武器的召唤,涵盖了她所珍视的大多数主题,充满了一种希望,这种希望在现在很难被召唤出来。“绿色政治必须解决工业社会的精神真空,”她写道。封面照片上的凯利戴着一顶黄花头盔,但她的笑脸并没有掩饰她的疲劳。她眼睛下面的黑眼圈显示出一种慢性肾脏疾病,但同时也是一种不安和疲惫:她对这个星球的焦虑内化了。在上一次采访中,她说:“我们做的每件事都像西西弗斯的劳动。”这就好像挑战性的神话岩石和她肾里的石头融合成了某种提名决定论。

1991年,我在墨西哥的莫雷利亚遇到了凯利,我的父母在那里为作家和环保主义者组织了一次研讨会。她立刻脱颖而出——有磁性、勇敢、热情——之后我们通过她心爱的传真机保持联系。奇怪的是,在尸体被发现的第二天,我的父母安排在波恩和她共进午餐,并试图给房子打电话好几个星期。几个月后,他们收到了一封由她的同事,绿党政治家约什卡·费舍尔寄来的包裹;打开包裹后,他们发现了一条她打算送给他们的雕刻木鱼。今天要战斗的战斗比上世纪70年代和80年代更为紧迫和充满厄运,尽管许多战斗,唉,仍然是一样的。当凯利谈到本世纪面临的挑战时,她不可能更有先见之明:“如果我们不做不可能的事,我们将面临不可想象的事情。”

主要形象:1983年,佩特拉·凯利参与了对穆特兰根美国军事基地的封锁。礼貌:克雷维特/盖蒂图片公司,克洛艾瑞吉斯克洛艾瑞吉斯是一名作家,住在英国伦敦。她的第三部小说《海怪》将于2019年2月由查托·温德斯出版。

 

FRIZE特稿 ARThing编译

 

Chloe Aridjis on Petra Kelly

Few details of the death of Petra Kelly in October 1992 are more symbolic than the interruption that is assumed to have occurred during the typing of the word ‘must’. After relatives raised the alarm, German police entered her house in Bonn and discovered two bodies decomposed beyond recognition. Accompanying the gruesome scenario was the ominous hum of an electric typewriter that had been left running for nearly three weeks. In the carriage lay a sheet of paper on which Kelly’s partner, Gert Bastian, a retired army general 25 years her senior, had been writing a letter to his lawyer. Halfway through typing what might have been the word müssen (must), he stopped – he had only got as far as ‘müs’. Kelly’s brief life – driven by a sense of duty, urgency, powered by a constant feeling of ‘must’, haunted by the thought that she was never doing enough – could be summed up in this truncated word.

Kelly was only 44 when she died, and her murder sent shock waves throughout the world. As co-founder of the German Green party in 1979, she had been its most visible face. Her causes were manifold – nuclear disarmament, indigenous and women’s rights, sustainable development, demilitarization, democratization of the Soviet bloc, the liberation of Tibet – and she did what she could to introduce them into government policy. Yet, it wasn’t easy being a female politician and her fervour was often mocked by the opposition. At the Bundestag, where she held a parliamentary seat from 1983 to 1990, microphones were permanently tuned to suit a man’s voice, rendering a woman’s voice unnaturally shrill; only after some campaigning were they returned to default mode each time a woman spoke.

Aware of the perils of a coalition government, Kelly warned the Greens of the dangers of compromise and shared power. Nonviolent civil disobedience was her preferred weapon and, even when she was a member of parliament, she’d protest outside the Bundestag. Over the years, her stance isolated her; some later argued that her modest existence and abandonment by the Greens made her vulnerable and exposed.

To this day, the circumstances of the deaths remain a mystery. They found Kelly in bed with a bullet to her temple and Bastian in the corridor with a bullet to his forehead, his gun lying nearby. Many people concluded that he had murdered her. Others insisted it was a politically motivated third party – their alarm system had been switched off, the balcony door unlocked. Whatever the truth, the investigation was closed within 24 hours.

Two years after her death, a collection of Kelly’s writings, Thinking Green! Essays on Environmentalism, Feminism and Nonviolence, was published. It’s a powerful summons from beyond the grave. Each chapter is a call to arms, covering most subjects that were dear to her, fuelled by a hope that would be much harder to conjure up in the present. ‘Green politics must address the spiritual vacuum of industrial society,’ she wrote. The cover photograph shows Kelly in a helmet decked in yellow flowers, yet her smiling face doesn’t hide the fatigue. The dark circles under her eyes betray a chronic kidney disorder but also a restlessness and exhaustion: her anxiety for the planet internalized. In her last interview, she said: ‘Everything we do is like the labour of Sisyphus.’ It was as if the defiant mythical rock and the stones in her kidneys had melded into some sort of nominative determinism.

I met Kelly in 1991 in Morelia, Mexico, where my parents had organized a symposium for writers and environmentalists. She immediately stood out – magnetic, valiant, intense – and we stayed in touch afterwards via her beloved fax machine. In a strange twist of fate, my parents had scheduled lunch with her in Bonn the day after the bodies were discovered and had been trying to call the house for weeks. Months later, they received a package in the post, sent by her colleague, the Greens politician Joschka Fischer; upon unwrapping it, they found a carved wooden fish she had been planning to give them.

The battles to be fought today feel even more urgent and doom-laden than those of the 1970s and ’80s, though many of them, alas, remain the same. Kelly couldn’t have been more prescient when she said of the challenges confronting this century: ‘If we don’t do the impossible, we shall be faced with the unthinkable.’

Main Image: Petra Kelly participating in the blockade of the US military base in Mutlangen, 1983. Courtesy: Krewitt/Getty Images

Chloe Aridjis

Chloe Aridjis is a writer who lives in London, UK. Her third novel, Sea Monsters, will be published by Chatto & Windus in February, 2019.

 


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